Suffrage is guaranteed by the 1987 post-Martial law Philippine constitution. According to the Constitution, suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year, and in the place wherein they propose to vote, for at least six months immediately preceding the election.
The following shall be disqualified from voting:
(a) Any person who has been sentenced by final judgment to imprisonment for not less than one year, such disability not having been removed by plenary pardon or granted amnesty: Provided, however, that any person disqualified to vote under this paragraph shall automatically reacquire the right to vote upon expiration of five years after service of sentence.
(b) Any person who has been adjudged by final judgment by competent court or tribunal of having committed any crime involving disloyalty to the duly constituted government such as rebellion, sedition, violation of the anti-subversion and firearms laws, or any crime against national security, unless restored to his full civil and political rights in accordance with law: Provided, that he shall regain his right to vote automatically upon expiration of five years after service of sentence.
(c) Insane or incompetent persons as declared by competent authority.
In addition, RA 9189 or the Overseas Absentee Voting Law entitles all Filipino citizens overseas, not otherwise disqualified by law, and immigrants, and permanent residents with affidavit of intent to resume residence in the Philippines, to vote for elective positions
The 1987 Constitution, was crafted to restore civil and political rights to the people, and to provide for restricted powers of the president, multi-party system, promotion of the role of non-government and sectoral organizations, and proportional representation in the legislature.
It also mandated elections as part of the system of representative democracy, complemented by the system of direct democracy. As such, general elections have been held regularly and the Commission on Elections (Comelec)—the election management body (EMB) in the Philippines is given not only quasi-judicial but judicial powers as well.
COMELEC is governed by a number of election laws that serve as basis for implementing elections in the Philippines. They are the Omnibus Election Code, Automated Elections, ARMM, Citizens Arm, Overseas Voting, Party-List, Persons with Disabilities and Senior Citizens, Synchronized National and Local Elections, Synchronized Barangay and SK Elections, Free and Fair Elections act, Other Election Laws, Registration
Other related laws and legal documents governing implementation of elections in the Philippines are the Local Government Code, Executive Orders, Presidential Proclamations, Registration Laws, COMELEC Rules of Procedures, Other Related Laws