Government Structure

Japan government is a constitutional monarchy based on a parliamentary system. The Imperial Throne is a dynasty where the Emperor is the symbol of the State and of the unity of the People, performing only ceremonial acts in and he has no powers related to government.

Government Administrative Divisions


The Executive power lie on the Cabinet, which consist of the Prime Minister, who is the head of government and other Ministers of State (no more than 17), appointed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is not elected by general public elections, he should be member of the Diet and it designated by the Diet.

The Prime Minister function by representing the Cabinet is submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercise control and supervision over others administrative branches under Prime Minister, Cabinet Secretariat that has 13 ministries and agencies.


The legislative branch in Japan is named “The DIET” which according to the constitution is the highest organ of state power, and the sole law‐making organ of the State. It consist of two Houses where the members are elected representing all the people with non discrimination because of race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income; the number of members shall be fix by law:

1. House of Representatives ‘Shugi‐in’(480 members): The office term for members is four years, it can be terminated before completing the term in case of dissolving it.

2. House of Councilors ‘Sangi‐in’ (242 members): The office term is six years and elections for half of the members take place every three years. Electoral districts, method of voting and other matters pertaining to the method of election of members of both Houses may be fixed by law, and no person can be member of both Houses during the same period.


The judicial power according to the constitution lies in a Supreme Court, and the other courts as High Courts, District Courts, Summary Courts, and Family Courts. The Supreme Court is the rule‐making power under which it determines the rules of procedure and of practice, and of matters relating to attorneys, the internal discipline of the courts and the administration of judicial affairs. And it is the last resort with power to determine the constitutionality of any law, order, regulation or official act. The Supreme Court can delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to such courts but the Public procurators are subject to the rule‐making power of the Supreme Court.


Under the principle of local autonomy, law fixes regulations concerning organization and operations of local public entities.

Therefore according to it the local public entities shall establish assemblies as their deliberative organs where the chief executive officers of all local public entities, the members of their assemblies, and such other local officials are elected by direct popular vote within their communities.

The local public entities have the right to manage their property, affairs and administration and to enact their own regulations within law. The Diet cannot enact a special law to a specific local public entity unless it has the consent of the majority of voters.

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures.

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