Legal Framework

Elections in Myanmar are governed by the Constitution, laws enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Parliament), directives, and rules prescribed by the Union Election Commission, the body responsible for handling the conduct of the electoral process.

The Constitution contains the basic provisions for the conduct of elections. It includes the rights of the citizens to elect and be elected in the Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives—the lower house), Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities—upper house) and the Region or State Hluttaw (regional parliaments). The discussion on Myanmar’s citizenship, its acquisition and loss is expounded in the Citizenship Law. Aside from the citizenship, the Constitution includes other eligibility features for voters. It also includes basic provisions for elected offices and terms of office, presidential elections, political parties and the creation of the Union Election Commission.

The two laws that regulate the election for Myanmar’s Union Parliament are the Pyithu Hluttaw Election Law and the Amyotha Hluttaw Election Law. The Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw Election Law regulates the election for the country’s regional parliaments.

Resources :


PDF : Constitution (2008)
Constitution of Myanmar 2008 in English and Burmese language

Election Laws

PDF : The Union Election Commission Law (2010)
PDF : Pyithu Hluttaw Election Law (2010)
Election Law for the House of Representatives of the Myanmar Parliament.
PDF : Amyotha Hluttaw Election Law (2010)
Election Law for the House of Nationalities of the Myanmar Parliament
PDF : Region Hluttaw or the State Hlttawa Election Law (2010)
Myanmar regional parliament electoral law.
PDF : The Political Parties Registration Law (2010)
PDF : Law Amending the Political Party Registration Law (Mizzima News, unofficial translation: 2011)

EC’s Announcements and Directives

PDF : Announcement on Rights of Formation and Registration of Political Party (Union Election Commission: 2010)
PDF : Announcement on Rights of Continued Existence and Registration of Political Party (Union Election Commission: 2010)
PDF : Rights to Assemble and Canvass for Hluttaw Candidates (Union Election Commission: 2010)
PDF : Directive no. 2/2010 of 21 June, Enlisting the Strength of Political Parties (Union Election Commission: 2010)

Analysis on the Legal Framework

PDF : Preliminary Analysis of Myanmar’s 2010 Electoral Laws (Prepared for the Conflict Prevention and Peace Forum by Richard Horsey: 2010)

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