Government Structure

Nepal is a Federal Democratic Republic state. The head of the state which is a figure head is the President. Governmental functions are managed by the Prime Minister appointed by the Parliament. The heads of constitutional bodies are appointed by the President through consultation with the Constitutional Council.

Executive Branch

According to the constitution, the functions of the government of Nepal are carried out in the spirit of people’s movement by political consent and culture of mutual understanding. The Deputy Prime Minister, Ministers, State Ministers and Assistant Ministers can all be appointed by the Prime Minister from among the members of Legislative ­Parliament through the recommendation of affiliated political parties. However, the Prime Minister is not strictly limited to appointed members chosen from the Legislative Parliament; in accordance with political understanding, the Prime Minister has the freedom to appoint those outside Legislative Parliament as well.

Legislative Branch

Nepal has a 601 ­members of Parliament. 240 members are directly elected from each constituency in 75 districts while 335 members are elected on the basis of proportional representation of parties elected in the Constituent Assembly, and 26 members are nominated by cabinet from experts and from indigenous communities that are not represented in the Constituent Assembly.

Local Governance

Nepal operates under a two­tier local governance system. The local government consists of a middle tier of 75 districts each with a District Development Committee (DDC). Districts are sub- divided into 58 municipalities and 3,913 Village Development Committees (VDCs). Wards are further divisions of VDCs act as the most basic administrative unit in the local government.

The Judiciary

There are three court levels in Nepal: supreme, appellate, and district courts. The highest court is the Supreme Court, whose chief justice is appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council. Remaining judges are also appointed by the prime minister, through recommendations given by the Judicial Council. The Supreme Court is the highest court with the power to inspect, supervise, and give directives to the lower courts.

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